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QUESTION 115
A switch is configured with all ports assigned to VLAN 2. In addition, all ports are configured as full-duplex FastEthernet. What is the effect of adding switch ports to a new VLAN on this switch?
A. The additions will create more collisions domains.
B. An additional broadcast domain will be created.
C. More bandwidth will be required than was needed previously.
D. IP address utilization will be more efficient.
Correct Answer: B Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
A VLAN is a group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the same wire, regardless of their physical location. A VLAN has the same attributes as a physical LAN, but it allows for end stations to be grouped together even if they are not located on the same LAN segment.
Networks that use the campus-wide or end-to-end VLANs logically segment a switched network based on the functions of an organization, project teams, or applications rather than on a physical or geographical basis. For example, all workstations and servers used by a particular workgroup can be connected to the same VLAN, regardless of their physical network connections or interaction with other workgroups. Network reconfiguration can be done through software instead of physically relocating devices.
Cisco recommends the use of local or geographic VLANs that segment the network based on IP subnets. Each wiring closet switch is on its own VLAN or subnet and traffic between each switch is routed by the router. The reasons for the Distribution Layer 3 switch and examples of a larger network using both the campus-wide and local VLAN models will be discussed later. A VLAN can be thought of as a broadcast domain that exists within a defined set of switches. Ports on a switch can be grouped into VLANs in order to limit unicast, multicast, and broadcast traffic flooding. Flooded traffic originating from a particular VLAN is only flooded out ports belonging to that VLAN, including trunk ports, so a switch that connects to another switch will normally introduce an additional broadcast domain.
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) technology is to solve the problem that switches can’t limit broadcast within the LAN interconnection. This technology can divide a LAN into more logical LAN- VLAN, each VLAN is a broadcast domain, the communication between the hosts within a VLAN is like that of the hosts in a LAN, while the communication can’t be achieved between VLANs directly. Thus the broadcast datagram is limited within a LAN. So, creating a new VLAN on switch is the same as adding a new broadcast domain.
QUESTION 116
Which two of these are characteristics of the 802.1Q protocol? (Choose two.)
A. It is a Layer 2 messaging protocol which maintains VLAN configurations across networks.
B. It is a trunking protocol capable of carrying untagged frames.
C. It modifies the 802.3 frame header, and thus requires that the FCS be recomputed.
D. It includes an 8-bit field which specifies the priority of a frame.
Correct Answer: BC Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
802.1Q protocol, or Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks protocol, mainly stipulates the realization of the VLAN. 802.1Q is a standardized relay method that inserts 4 bytes field into the original Ethernet frame and re-calculate the FCS. 802.1Q frame relay supports two types of frame: marked and non-marked. Non-marked frame carries no VLAN identification information.
QUESTION 117
When the hosts boot, hosts that are connected to the switches are having trouble getting a DHCP address from the DHCP server. Which STP feature could minimize the effects of STP convergence for the hosts?

A. path cost
B. port priority
C. BID
D. PortFast
Correct Answer: D Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e Explanation Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
The purpose of PortFast is to shorten the time to access port and STP convergence. The advantages of PortFast are to prevent DHCP overtime, Novell login issue, Apple Talk address finding, and so on. In addition to the specific network design, it is generally used when accessing to ports. If startup PostFast when connecting to other switch ports, it may result in bridge loop.
QUESTION 118
Which statement accurately describes a benefit provided by VTP?
A. VTP allows switches to share VLAN configuration information.
B. VTP allows physically redundant links while preventing switching loops.
C. VTP allows a single port to carry information to more than one VLAN.
D. VTP allows routing between VLANs.
Correct Answer: A Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
Trunking Protocol (VTP) are to manage all configured VLANs across a switched internetwork and to maintain consistency throughout that network VTP allows you to add, delete, and rename VLANs-information that is then propagated to all other switches in the VTP domain.
Here’s a list of some features of VTP:
*Consistent VLAN configuration across all switches in the network *VLAN trunking over mixed networks, such as Ethernet to ATM LANE or even FDDI *Accurate tracking and monitoring of VLANs *Dynamic reporting of added VLANs to all switches in the VTP domain *Plug and Play VLAN adding
Administration of network environments that consists of many interconnected switches is complicated. Cisco has developed a propriety solution to manage VLANs across such networks using the VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) to exchange VLAN configuration information between switches. VTP uses Layer 2 trunk frames to exchange VLAN information so that the VLAN configuration stays consistent throughout a network. VTP also manages the additions, deletions, and name changes of VLANs across multiple switches from a central point, minimizing misconfigurations and configuration inconsistencies that can cause problems, such as duplicate VLAN names or incorrect VLANtype settings.
VTP is organized into management domains or areas with common VLAN requirements. A switch can belong to only one VTP domain. Switches in different VTP domains do not share VTP information. Switches in a VTP domain advertise several attributes to their domain neighbors. Each advertisement contains information about the VTP management domain, VTP configuration revision number, known VLANs, and specific VLAN parameters.
The VTP process begins with VLAN creation on a switch called a VTP server. VTP floods advertisements throughout the VTP domain every 5 minutes, or whenever there is a change in VLAN configuration. The VTP advertisement includes a configuration revision number, VLAN names and numbers, and information about which switches have ports assigned to each VLAN. By configuring the details on one or more VTP server and propagating the information through advertisements, all switches configuration know the names and numbers of all VLANs.
QUESTION 119
As the network administrator. You need to configure two switches to exchange VLAN information. Which protocol provides a method of sharing VLAN configuration information between these two switches?
A. 802.1Q
B. STP

C. VLSM D. VTP
Correct Answer: D Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is Cisco level 2 information transfer protocol, mainly controls the VLANs add, delete, and rename within network. VTP reduce the management services in switch network. When a user prepares to configure new VLAN for VTP server, he may implement VLAN distribution through all the switches, to avoid identical VLAN configuration. VTP is a Cisco private protocol, which support the majority of Cisco Catalyst Series products. Through VTP, all switches within its domain have a clear idea of all the VLANs, except when VTP can create extra traffic. At this time, all unknown unicast and broadcast spread throughout the VLAN, making all the switches in the network receive all broadcasts, even if no user is connected in the VLAN, the situation is no exception. And VTP Pruning is able remove the extra traffic.
QUESTION 120
Refer to the exhibit. Spanning Tree Protocol has created a loop-free logical topology in the network that is
pictured.
How many ports have been placed in the blocking mode?
A. three
B. one
C. none
D. two
Correct Answer: D Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
Spanning Tree maintains a loop free topology. Regardless of which switch is elected the root switch, two of the five links will not be used as they would create a redundant path.
QUESTION 121
Which three of these statements regarding 802.1Q trunking are correct? (Choose three.)
A. 802.1Q trunking ports can also be secure ports.
B. 802.1Q trunks can use 10 Mb/s Ethernet interfaces.
C. 802.1Q trunks should have native VLANs that are the same at both ends.
D. 802.1Q native VLAN frames are untagged by default.
Correct Answer: BCD Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e
Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
By default, 802.1Q trunk defined Native VLAN in order to forward unmarked frame. Switches can forward Layer 2 frame from Native VLAN on unmarked trunks port. Receiver switches will transmit all unmarked packets to Native VLAN. Native VLAN is the default VLAN configuration of port. Note: for the 802.1Q trunk ports between two devices, the same Native VLAN configuration is required on both sides of the link. If the Native VLAN in 802.1Q trunk ports on same trunk link is properly configured, it could lead to layer 2 loops. The 802.1Q trunk link transmits VLAN information through Ethernet.
QUESTION 122
A network administrator needs to force a high-performance switch that is located in the MDF to become the root bridge for a redundant path switched network. What can be done to ensure that this switch assumes the role as root bridge?
A. Connect the switch directly to the MDF router, which will force the switch to assume the role of root bridge.
B. Configure the switch for full-duplex operation and configure the other switches for half-duplex operation.
C. Establish a direct link from the switch to all other switches in the network.
D. Assign the switch a higher MAC address than the other switches in the network have.
E. Configure the switch so that it has a lower priority than other switches in the network.
Correct Answer: E Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
For all switches in a network to agree on a loop-free topology, a common frame of reference must exist. This reference point is called the Root Bridge . The Root Bridge is chosen by an election process among all connected switches. Each switch has a unique Bridge ID (also known as the bridge priority) that it uses to identify itself to other switches. The Bridge ID is an 8-byte value. 2 bytes of the Bridge ID is used for a Bridge Priority field, which is the priority or weight of a switch in relation to all other switches. The other 6 bytes of the Bridge ID is used for the MAC Address field, which can come from the Supervisor module, the backplane, or a pool of 1024 addresses that are assigned to every Supervisor or backplane depending on the switch model. This address is hard coded, unique, and cannot be changed. The election process begins with every switch sending out BPDUs with a Root Bridge ID equal to its own Bridge ID as well as a Sender Bridge ID. The latter is used to identify the source of the BPDU message. Received BPDU messages are analyzed for a lower Root Bridge ID value. If the BPDU message has a Root Bridge ID (priority) of the lower value than the switch’s own Root Bridge ID, it replaces its own Root Bridge ID with the Root Bridge ID announced in the BPDU. If two Bridge Priority values are equal, then the lower MAC address takes preference.
QUESTION 123
The exhibited network is stable and operating properly. Assuming that default STP configurations are running on both switches, which port will be in blocking mode?

A. Port Fa0/2 on Switch1
B. Port Fa0/1 on Switch2
C. Port Fa0/1 on Switch1
D. Port Fa0/2 on Switch2
Correct Answer: C Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
First find out which switch port will become blocking mode through root-bridge election.
Root-bridge election:
Bridge ID = Bridge Priority + Bridge MAC address
The default bridge priority is 32,768. In this case, you only need to compare two switch MAC addresses.
The MAC address of Switch2 is the smallest one. Therefore it will be the root-bridge of this switching
network.
As a non-root bridge, an interface of Switch1 will be blocked by STP. Compare the speed of the links that
Fa0/1 and Fa0/2 connect, you’ll find that the link that Fa0/1 connects needs much higher cost. Therefore
Fa0/1 will be blocked.

Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 protocol that utilizes a special-purpose algorithm to discover
physical loops in a network and effect a logical loop-free topology. STP creates a loop-free tree structure
consisting of leaves and branches that span the entire Layer 2 network. The actual mechanics of how
bridges communicate and how the STP algorithm works will be discussed at length in the following topics.
Note that the terms bridge and switch are used interchangeably when discussing STP. In addition, unless
otherwise indicated, connections between switches are assumed to be trunks.
The switches move on to selecting Root Ports. The Root Port of a bridge is the port that is closest to the Root Bridge in terms of Path Cost. Every non-Root Bridge must select one Root Port. Again, bridges use the concept of cost to measure closeness. As with some routing metrics, the measure of closeness using STP is not necessarily reflected by hop count. Specifically, bridges track what is referred to as Root Path Cost, which is the cumulative cost of all links to the Root Bridge . So, Answer A is correct.
QUESTION 124
What is the purpose of Spanning Tree Protocol?
A. to provide multiple gateways for hosts
B. to maintain a loop-free Layer 2 network topology
C. to prevent routing loops
D. to create a default route
Correct Answer: B Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
STP (Spanning Tree protocol) is able to overcome transparent bridge in network redundancy. Through the use of non-loop path, STP is able to avoid and eliminate network loops. It may locate the loop and cut off link redundancy.
STP’s main task is to stop network loops from occurring on your Layer 2 network (bridges or switches). It vigilantly monitors the network to find all links, making sure that no loops occur by shutting down any redundant ones. STP uses the spanning-tree algorithm (STA) to first create a topology database, then search out and destroy redundant links. With STP running, frames will only be forwarded on the premium, STP-picked links.
QUESTION 125
Refer to the exhibit. Three Cisco 2950 switches are set to their default priority settings. During the

A. Switch1
B. Switch4
C. Switch2
D. Switch3
Correct Answer: A Section: 3_V (101 – 125) 3.e Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
The first step of STP is root-bridge election. BPDU is used in this election process. When device advertises
BPDU, it will put its own switch ID in BPDU. Switch ID is used for the election of root switch. Switch with a
minimum switch ID is selected as root. Switch ID is composed of two components:
Switch Priority: the default priority on Cisco switches is 32,768 (two bytes in length)
Switches MAC address (6 bytes in length) By default, the switch with the lowest MAC address in switching
network will be root-bridge.

QUESTION 126
Which of the protocols operates at Layer 2 of the OSI model, and is used to maintain a loop-free network?
A. VTP
B. IGRP

C. RIP
D. STP
Correct Answer: D Section: 3_VI (126 – 150) 3.f Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
A Layer 2 switch, which functions as a transparent bridge, offers no additional links for redundancy purposes. To add redundancy, a second switch must be added. Now two switches offer the transparent bridging function in parallel. LAN designs with redundant links introduce the possibility that frames might loop around the network forever. These looping frames would cause network performance problems. For example, when the switches receive an unknown unicast, both will flood the frame out all their available ports, including the ports that link to the other switch, resulting in what is known as a bridging loop, as the frame is forwarded around and around between two switches. This occurs because parallel switches are unaware of each other. The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), which allows the redundant LAN links to be used while preventing frames from looping around the LAN indefinitely through those redundant links, was developed to overcome the possibility of bridging loops. It enables switches to become aware of each other so that they can negotiate a loop-free path through the network. Loops are discovered before they are opened for use, and redundant links are shut down to prevent the loops from forming. STP is communicated between all connected switches on a network. Each switch executes the Spanning-Tree Algorithm (STA) based on information received from other neighboring switches. The algorithm chooses a reference point in the network and calculates all the redundant paths to that reference point. When redundant paths are found, STA picks one path to forward frames with and disables or blocks forwarding on the other redundant paths. STP computes a tree structure that spans all switches in a subnet or network. Redundant paths are placed in a blocking or standby state to prevent frame forwarding. The switched network is then in a loop-free condition. However, if a forwarding port fails or becomes disconnected, the STA will run again to recompute the Spanning-Tree topology so that blocked links can be reactivated. STP (spanning tree protocol) operates on layer 2 to prevent loops in switches and bridges.
Incorrect Answers:
A: VTP is the VLAN Trunking Protocol, used to pass VLAN information through switches. It relies on the STP mechanism to provide a loop free network.
B: RIP and IGRP are routing protocols, which are used at layer 3 to maintain a loop free routed environment.
C: RIP and IGRP are routing protocols, which are used at layer 3 to maintain a loop free routed environment.
QUESTION 127
Which two of these statements regarding RSTP are correct? (Choose two.)
A. RSTP defines new port roles.
B. RSTP is compatible with the original IEEE 802.1D STP.
C. RSTP defines no new port states.
D. RSTP cannot operate with PVST+.
Correct Answer: AB Section: 3_VI (126 – 150) 3.f Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
When network topology changes, rapid spanning tree protocol (IEEE802.1W, referred to as RSTP) will speed up significantly the speed to re-calculate spanning tree. RSTP not only defines the role of other ports: alternative port and backup port, but also defines status of 3 ports: discarding status, learning status, forwarding status.
RSTP is 802.1D standard evolution, not revolution. It retains most of the parameters, and makes no changes.
QUESTION 128
The output that is shown is generated at a switch. Which three of these statements are true? (Choose

A. The bridge priority is lower than the default value for spanning tree.
B. All designated ports are in a forwarding state.
C. All interfaces that are shown are on shared media.
D. All ports will be in a state of discarding, learning, or forwarding.
E. Thirty VLANs have been configured on this switch.
F. This switch must be the root bridge for all VLANs on this switch.
Correct Answer: ABD Section: 3_VI (126 – 150) 3.f Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
Root bridge election succeeds, switches stop flooding, and all ports have experienced discarding, learning or forwarding status. The default priority for the bridge is 32768; it shows in Role and Sts that all designated ports are in forward state. The IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) enhances the 802.1d standard with one goal in mind: improving STP convergence. To do so, RSTP defines new variations on BPDUs between switches, new port states, and new port roles, all with the capability to operate backwardly compatible with 802.1d switches.
The default priority value of spanning is 32,768 but shown value is lower than default value. In RSTP new port state is defined as:

QUESTION 129
What is the purpose of the Cisco VLAN Trunking Protocol?
A. to provide a mechanism to dynamically assign VLAN membership to switch ports
B. to allow for managing the additions, deletions, and changes of VLANs between switches
C. to provide a mechanism to manually assign VLAN membership to switch ports
D. to allow native VLAN information to be carried over a trunk link
E. to allow traffic to be carried from multiple VLANs over a single link between switches
Correct Answer: B Section: 3_VI (126 – 150) 3.f Explanation
Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
The basic goals of the VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) are to manage all configured VLANs across a switched internetwork and to maintain consistency throughout that network VTP allows you to add, delete, and rename VLANs-information that is then propagated to all other switches in the VTP domain.
QUESTION 130
Place the Spanning-Tree Protocol port state on its function by dragging the state on the left to the correct target on the right. (Not all options on the left are used.)
Select and Place:

Correct Answer: Section: 3_VI (126 – 150) 3.f Explanation

Explanation/Reference:Explanation:
Section 9: Describe how VLANs create logically separate networks and the need for routing between them (4 questions)
QUESTION 131
Hosts on the same VLAN can communicate with each other but are unable to communicate with hosts on
different VLANs.
What is needed to allow communication between VLANs?
A. a router with an IP address on the physical interface that is connected to the switch
B. a router with subinterfaces configured on the physical interface that is connected to the switch
C. a switch with an access link that is configured between the switches
D. a switch with a trunk link that is configured between the switches
Correct Answer: B Section: 3_VI (126 – 150) 3.f Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Different VLANs can’t communicate with each other , they can communicate with the help of Layer3 router. Hence ,it is needed to connect a router to a switch , then make the sub-interface on the router to connect to the switch, establishing Trunking links to achieve communications of devices which belong to different VLANs.
When using VLANs in networks that have multiple interconnected switches, you need to use VLAN trunking between the switches. With VLAN trunking, the switches tag each frame sent between switches so that the receiving switch knows to what VLAN the frame belongs. End user devices connect to switch ports that provide simple connectivity to a single VLAN each. The attached devices are unaware of any VLAN structure.
By default, only hosts that are members of the same VLAN can communicate. To change this and allow inter-VLAN communication, you need a router or a layer 3 switch.
Here is the example of configuring the router for inter-vlan communication
RouterA(config)#int f0/0.1 RouterA(config-subif)#encapsulation ? dot1Q IEEE 802.1Q Virtual LAN RouterA(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1Q or isl VLAN ID RouterA(config-subif)# ip address x.x.x.x y.y.y.y

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